Liquefied Natural Gas

PT. Enviromate Technology International

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

We offer services along the natural gas value chain. We are specialized in building natural gas facilities; Compressed Natural Gas Plant, Small and Medium Scale LNG storage and regasification, LPG storage and extraction plant. For our clients, we offer different business models such as Engineering Procurement and Construction (EPC) Turnkey project and Build Own Operate and Transfer (BOOT). Our Portfolio: 15 MMSCFD CNG Peaker Plant at Grati, East Java 18 MMSCFD CNG Peaker Plant at Tambak Lorok, Central Java 28 MMSCFD CNG Plant at Gresik and Lombok

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas cooled to a liquid state. When natural gas is cooled to a temperature of approximately -256 degree F at atmospheric pressure, it condenses to a liquid.

What is LNG? Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas cooled to a liquid state. When natural gas is cooled to a temperature of approximately -256 degree F at atmospheric pressure, it condenses to a liquid. To liquefy natural gas, impurities that would freeze are removed, such as water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and some of the heavier hydrocarbons. The volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th of the volum e of natural gas at a stove burner tip. LNG weighs about 45 percent as much as water and is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic

Where does LNG come from? A majority of the worlds supply comes from countries with the largest natural gas reserves: Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Trinidad, and Tabago.

How is LNG transported? LNG is transported in double-hulled ships specifically designed to handle the low temperature of LNG. These carriers are insulated to limit the amount of LNG that evaporates.LNG carriers are up to 1,000 feet long and require a minimum water depth of 40 feet when fully loaded. In 2004, there were approximately 140 LNG ships operating worldwide . LNG is transported in double-hulled ships specifically designed to handle the low temperature of LNG. These carriers are insulated to limit the amount of LNG that evaporates.

How is LNG stored? When LNG is received at most terminals, it is transferred to insulated storage tanks specifically built to hold LNG. These tanks can be found above or below ground and keep the liquid at low temperature to avoid evaporation.

Is it flammable? When cold LNG comes in contact with warmer air, it creates a visible vapor cloud from condensed moisture in the air. As it continues to get warmer, the vapor cloud becomes lighter than air and rises. When the vapor mixes with air, it is only flammable when the mixture is between 5-15 percent natural gas. When the mixture is less than 5 percent natural gas it does not burn. When the mixture is more than 15 percent natural gas in air, there is not enough oxygen for it to burn.

As a liquid, LNG is not explosive. LNG vapor will only explode in an enclosed space within the flammable range of 5-15 percent. Benefits of LNG in transportation applications: LNG is produced both worldwide and domestically at a relatively low cost and is cleaner burning than diesel fuel. Since LNG has a higher storage density, it is a more viable alternative to diesel fuel than compressed natural gas for heavy-duty vehicle applications. In addition, LNG in heavy-duty natural gas engines achieves significantly lower NOx and particulate emission levels than diesel.

Advantages of LNG: It makes it possible to use natural gas in areas where natural gas is not available via the national delivery network or municipal distribution system. It is a more economic source of energy when compared to black products (fuel oil and diesel) and LPG. It is suitable for consumer purposes such as process, steam recovery, heating and cooking in sectors like tourism, steel, paper and ceramic. Because of it high energy content, the total amount of energy needed is reduced. It expands 600 times to reach its gaseous state (1 unit of LNG = 600 units of natural gas). A large amount of natural gas can be stored and transported at low pressure. It can be used in all burning devices by making minor changes. Because it is a clean fuel, it contributes to improved product quality and reduces maintenance costs. LNG fuel burns much cleaner than diesel: Ninety per cent lower fine particle and NOx emissions and 15% lower CO2 emissions. Transport using LNG fuel already satisfies the proposed Euro 6 emission requirements.

The cost of LNG fuel is competitive with diesel. The LNG fuel itself is cheaper than diesel and has a higher energy value. The stability of the price of LNG fuel is greater than diesel because natural gas is sourced across the whole world. There are also reserves for 250 years, while diesel reserves are only estimated to last 50 years. All in all these properties make LNG the only alternative to diesel. LNG has none of the drawbacks of diesel with its cheaper price and performance advantages!